Archaeological site located in Changsha, China. In 1972, a tomb library was discovered there, which contains, among other things, a copy of the I Ching, which is much older than the textus receptus known so far and deviates from it by about 25 %.

If one compares the content of the I Ching from the tomb library of Mawangdui with the Textus receptus, several factors are important: First of all, the Chinese language has the peculiarity that spoken text is ambiguous when heard. If, however, it is written down and is to be interpreted, then on the one hand the figurative expressiveness of the character itself, and on the other hand also the associative ambiguities and variations in meaning that arise during pronunciation must be taken into account; this procedure, however, presupposes that information is available on the various levels of meaning of individual characters at the time of writing, including the historical-political background. For the grave finds of Mawangdui, this means that in order to understand the texts, both the historical context, the historic conditions in the Changsha area, and the personal circumstances of the buried person and his family must be taken into account. Furthermore, it is important to know that the I Ching, as a manual for divination, was mostly consulted in political or governmental matters, from which it follows that the I Ching from the Mawangdui tomb library could also have served as a political mouthpiece. (Cf. Hertzer 67-70.)

Read more:

Hertzer, Dominique. 1996. Das Alte Und Das Neue Yijing. Die Wandlungen Des Buches Der Wandlungen. München: Diederichs.


Functional circuit, pathway or channel through which, according to Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), the life energy (Qi) flows.

There are twelve main channels, each of which is assigned to one organ system. On the meridians themselves, there are special points where – e.g. through needles (acupuncture) or finger pressure (acupressure) – the energy balance can be influenced.

ElementFunctional CircuitTimeQualityEmotionSense
MetalLung (LU)03-05YinSorrowNose
MetalLarge Intestine (LI)05-07YangSorrowNose
EarthStomach (ST)07-09YangWorryLips
EarthSpleen (SP)09-11YinWorryLips
FireHeart (HT)11-13YinJoyTongue
FireSmall Intestine (SI)13-15YangJoyTongue
WaterBladder (BL)15-17YangFearEar
WaterKidney (KI)17-19YinFearEar
FirePericardium (PE)19-21YinJoyTongue
FireTriple Warmer (Sanjiao, SJ)21-23YangJoyTongue
WoodGallbladder (GB)23-01YangAngerEye
WoodLiver (LIV)01-03YinAngerAuge

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A model is a representation of reality, but not reality itself. In a model, complex relationships are simplified and reduced to their essential aspects. This allows aspects of reality to be grasped and understood more clearly than in the actual reality.

Models are an important tool for understanding complex relationships. With a model, for example, calculations and predictions can be made, hypotheses can be tested, and insights can be gained.

In this sense, it is intentional for a model to simplify and abstract reality without distorting it. It is also important to note that the more complete and realistic a model is, the less understandable and useful it may potentially be.


Nonthought. An expression from Zen Buddhism that refers to a state of mind in which one acts without thinking, without emotions, feelings or ego consciousness. Experienced martial artists act like this during a fight. In this state the mind work very fast and without hesitation, as it is without intention or goal.

What is mushin?
Mushin: nonthought. D. T. Suzuki wrote at length on mushin. It’s  nonthought, unconsciously, Mind without Thought, non-thought. It is the essence of Zen. Supposing you do something or want something in your ordinary life: if you act consciously, you are not mushin. If the impulse is expressed at conscious thought, it is not Zen. That is why training in a practice that involves the muscles an whole body is so important. It’s important for speaking too, Most people speak after the brain has given them the order to do so. But if you become mushin, hishiryo, you can speak unconsciously, without thought.Take a mondo*: if you ask a professor a question he has to think before he answers. But the zen monk answers without thinking, unconsciously. That’s why a Zen mondo is important.
It’s the the same with actions. The brain thinks and you act afterwards. That is not mushin. Mushin is the body thinking. If you understand that, you can understand Zen. Most Zen stories have to do with mushin. Wisdom and intellectual learning are not the same. in everyday life, in conversations, most people think first and then answer; but very intelligent people use wisdom and do not think. They speak and answer through intuition. Book learning is different from true knowledge. In time, one ceases using the brain to answer questions.
Through zazen you can understand how one can speak unconsciously. Your superficial brain rests and your inner brain becomes active and receives energy. In a mondo my answers come from the inner brain; the activity begins there. My inner brain answers you unconsciously, mushin. That’s why a zen mondo is different from an oral examination at the university. Speaking out of one’s book-learning is not wisdom. From long practice of zazen you will acquire this unconsciously: wisdom, not book-learning.
When I give a talk, for example, I must prepare what I am going to say. Learning first… and a bit of wisdom. But the moment I stand up in the hall I begin to talk unconsciously and I don’t always stick to what I have prepared. I look at at the faces and see whether I need to change my talk. There is no more plan, my words come out of the unconscious, an that is why they impress people so strongly. That is teisho. Deshimaru 1991, 77